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Tuesday, October 17, 2017

حسين الاعظمي - حفلة خاصة مقامات وبستات

Hussein al-Adhami and Al-Chalghi al-Baghdadi
Private Concert
c. 1975




- Dishdasha Subgh al-Nil
- Maqam Khanabat
- Yahl al-Muruwwa
- Maqam Urfa
- Areed Allah








تسجيل مطول من جلسة خاصة مع فرقة الجالغي البغدادي وقارئ المقام العراقي حسين اسماعيل الاعظمي بمرافقة محمد زكي درويش, داخل احمد, ونزيه محسن




(بستة)



دشداشة صبغ النيل دگومي بطرگها
والگذلة ست طيات ماندل فرگها

يا بابا خذني وياك * ساعة ماگدر بلياك
تواعدني وين الگاك * روحي العزيزة تفداك

حسبوا هلي جنيت وجابولي ملا
ما دروا همي هواي ربالي علة




*



مقام الخنبات



مرادي هواكم والهوان كرامة * لحلو لقاكم والعسير يسير
أعدوا على ديني ودنياي بركم * فتنقلب الأحزان وهي سرور
وتأخذ قلبي نشوة عند ذكركم * كما ارتاح صب خامرته خمور
واني لمستغن عن الكون دونكم * واما اليكم سادتي ففقير
فجودوا بوصل فالزمان مفرق * واكثر عمرِ العاشقين قصير



*



(بستة)



يا اهل المروة شلون سوولي جارة
ولفي تركني وراح صوب العمارة



*


مقام الاورفة




*


(بستة)



اريد الله اريد الله يحرمه نوم ليله



Vocals: Hussein Ismail al-A'dhami
Santur: Mohammed Zaki Darwish
Joza: Dakhil Ahmed
Tabla: Nazih Muhsin

Sunday, October 15, 2017

مقام اوشار - محمد زكي درويش وعلي امام على السنطور والعود

Maqam Awshar, poetry by Ma'ruf al-Rusafi
Mohammed Zaki and Ali al-Imam
Santur and Oud



امسية ثقافية (زخارف) في مدينة العيون, تونس مع استاذ آلة السنطور محمد زكي درويش السامرائي واستاذ آلة العود علي الامام وتقاسيم وقراءة شعرية من قصيدة لمعروف الرصافي على مقام الاوشار العراقي, من فروع مقام السيكاه الرئيسي

قد رمتني يد الزمان بخطب * جلل ما لليله اصباح
تركوني في الفراق اقاسي * الما ما تطيقه الارواح
وانا اليوم كالسفينة تجري * لا شراع لها ولا ملاح

Santur and vocals: Mohammed Zaki Darwish
Oud: Ali al-Imam

*

Sfax Poetry Diwan
Mohammed Zaki
2016





محمد زكي استاذ الموسيقى في المعهد العالي سوسة, تونس, قراءة شعرية وعزف على آلة السنطور واغاني قديمة على هامش ديوان صفاقس الشعري. فصول الشعر الأربعة, دار العفاس صفاقس

Friday, October 13, 2017

Rashid Al-Juburi رشيد الجبوري

Maqam Khanabat and Al-Majrashah
Rashid al-Juburi and Al-Chalghi al-Baghdadi





مقام الخنابات واغنية المجرشة من اداء المرحوم قارئ المقام رشيد الجبوري وفرقة الجالغي البغدادي (باهر الرجب, غازي العزاوي, صهيب الرجب, محمد الجبوري, ضياء الاعظمي, عبد الرزاق الشبلي) بمشاركة قراء المقام هاشم الرجب, ابراهيم العبدلي, عبد الملك الطائي في برنامج سهرة مع المقام العراقي تقديم واعداد يحيى ادريس

شعر بهاء الدين زهير

 

لعلك تصغي ساعة فأقول * لقد غاب واش بيننا وعذول
وفي النفس حاجات اليك كثيرة * أرى الشرح فيها والحديث يطول
تعال فما بيني وبينك ثالث * ليذكر كل شجوه ويقول
واياك عن نشر الحديث فأنني * به عن جميع العالمين بخيل
احب نسيما جاء منكم يزورني * فأني عليل والنسيم عليل
فما كل مخضوب البنان بثينة * ولا كل مسلوب الفؤاد جميل


*


(بستة)


ذبيت روحي على الجرش * وادري الجرش ياذيها
ساعة واكسر المجرشة * وألعن ابو راعيها


ساعة وأكسر المجرشة * بحركة واعيط بعيطة
من راسي لأنزع فوطتي * والبس انا البرنيطة
دنياك خربطها الوكت * صارت يا ول خربيطة
الكرعة صفت وام الشعر * خلاجك مساويها


ساعة واكسر المجرشة * بسنوني وامشي بيادة
باب الحوايج حافية * واشكيله حالي كصاده
وانذر نذر كل ثروتي * للكيم وللسادة
بلكن يفك حزني عجل * ولدعوتي يلبيها





Qanun: Bahir Hashim al-Rajab
Joza: Suhayb Hashim al-Rajab
Santur: Ghazi Mahsub al-Azzawi
Tabla: Abdul Razzaq al-Shibli
Riqq: Dhia al-Adhami
Naqqara: Mohammed al-Juburi

Abdul Qadir al-Najjar عبد القادر النجار

Maqam Huwaizawi and Buya Wulek Buya
Qadduri al-Najjar





مقام الحويزاوي وبستة قديمة من نغم الحجاز بوية ولك بوية اداء المرحوم قارئ المقام عبد القادر عبد اللطيف العزي النجار مع التخت الشرقي (خضير الشبلي, خضر الياس, محمد سعيد, شعوبي ابراهيم, جوزيف حنا, داود هوبي, علي الدبو, ضياء الاعظمي)

شعر ابو العتاهية


تبدى في ثياب من بياض * بألحاظ وأجفان مراضِ 
فقلت له عبرت ولم تسلم * وإني منك بالتسليم راضِ
فقال نعم كساني الله حسنا * ويخلق ما يشاء بلا اعتراضِ
فثوبي مثل ثغري مثل نحري * بياض في بياضٍ في بياضِ


*


(بستة)


رد يا طبيب الجاي لا تلزم ايدي * ما من نبضن بيه روحي بوريدي
بوية بوية بوية ولك بوية * انوب اراوي جروح كلبي للحلو


(رمتني هند حين ولت شبيبتي * وحالك شعري أبيض واحدودب الظهر)


ساسك رمل هيال من يا شريعة * عالرايح وعالجاي سرك تبيعه
بوية بوية بوية ولك بوية * انوب اراوي جروح كلبي للحلو


واريد اهد الروح بعاصف الريح * بلجي على نجم هواي من يصفن اتطيح
بوية بوية بوية ولك بوية * انوب اراوي جروح كلبي للحلو


لاكعد توالي الليل واذكر وليفي * وبحجة الحلمان لابجي على كيفي
بوية بوية بوية ولك بوية * انوب اراوي جروح كلبي للحلو




Qanun: Khudheir al-Shibli
Nay: Khudhr Elias
Oud: Mohammed Said
Joza: Shaubi Ibrahim al-Adhami
Violin: Joseph Hannah, Dawud Hubi
Riqq: Ali al-Dabbu, Dhia al-Adhami


Sunday, October 8, 2017

Salim Shibbeth - Maqamat سليم شبث - مقامات وبستات

موسيقى للسلام بالشرق الاوسط - الباحثة الموسيقية أسثير واركوف


Music for Peace in the Middle East spotlights Jewish, Muslim, and Christian musicians who fostered peaceful coexistence through collaborative music-making. Salim Shibith (1908 - 1981) was a highly regarded qari al-maqam (“maqam reader”) who performed al-maqam al-‘Iraqi (the Iraqi Maqam).


Ethnomusicologist Esther Warkov recorded Salim Shibith in two interviews at his home in Givat Olga, Hadera, Israel, shortly before his death in 1981. Learn more about Salim Shibith and read an analysis of this maqam rast performance in “The Urban Repertoire of Jewish Professional Musicians in Iraq and Israel: Instrumental Improvisation and Culture Change,” a Ph.D. dissertation at Academia.edu. Enter Salim Shibith in the dissertation's search field.



Like other performers, Shibith learned the tradition while listening to performances in Baghdadi coffee houses. Shibith took the additional step of engaging a teacher of Arabic literature and poetry to augment his education at a Jewish school in Baghdad.



We hear a familiar story: Shibith, known for his devotion to the maqam, was requested to complete a maqam performance at a Jewish club one evening when Rashid al-Qundarji became too inebriated to finish. Upon hearing Shibith, Rashid al-Qundarji reportedly kissed him and promised to teach him the intricacies of the maqam, Na‘im Twayna wrote in Al-Anba’ newspaper June 30, 1978. It is believed that Shibith modeled his performances on those of Rashid al-Qundarji.



In time, Shibith performed at the Iraqi broadcasting station, and became the preferred vocalist at the home parties of prime minister Nuri Sa‘id, according to Na‘im Twayna. Like most maqam singers, Shibith also worked in a second profession; he chose carpentry.



After immigrating to Israel in 1951, Shibith, like others, had few opportunities to perform the traditional Iraqi repertoire. Fortunately, Israel Radio arranged for Shibith (among others) to recorded many Iraqi maqam performances. Shibith recorded at least 38 different maqamat, some more than once, for a total of at least 82 recordings. These full-length performances, in contrast to shorter versions on ’78 discs, serve as examples for generations to come.


Visit Salim Shibith's Facebook page and others in the Music For Peace in the Middle East series.






**



- Maqam Nawa (00:00) and Bazringosh (14:00)
- Maqam Hadidi (16:38)



The nawa and hadidi performances include the Iraqi-Jewish santur player Yusuf Petaw, who was a part of the Iraqi delegation to the First International Conference of Arabic Music in Cairo, Egypt, 1932.







مقام النوى وبستة بزرنكوش. شعر شمس الدين الكوفي الواعظ. الفرقة المرافقة: يوسف بتو على الة السنطور, ساسون عبدو على الكمان, مناشي نسيم وشوتة مير على الايقاع. من تسجيلات القسم العربي لدار الاذاعة الاسرائيلية 1962
 


قف في ديار الظاعنين ونادها * يا دار ما صنعت بك الأيام 
وحياتكم إني على عهد الهـوى * باقٍ ولـم يخفـر لـدي ذمـام
اقصتكم الدنيـا علـي وكلمـا * جد النوى لعبت بـي الأسقـام
يا ليت شعري كيف حال أحبتي * وبـأي أرض خيمـوا وأقامـوا

*


(بستة)

يالزارع البزرنكوش * ازرع لنا حنة
حنة حنة
وجمالنا غربت * للشام وما جنا
جنا جنا
محملات بذهب * فوك الذهب حنة
حنة حنة
دك الحديد عالحديد * واسمع له رنة
رنة رنة
يا محبوبي جرحتني داويني
يالزارعين بزرنكوش * ازرع لنا حنة
حنة حنة
جرحك يا كلب خزن ولا تسجينة
يالزارعين بزرنكوش * ازرع لنا حنة
حنة حنة





*

مقام الحديدي


ما چان ذنبي بنار حشاي سليتني
من عگب هجرك لهاني العگل سليتني
ما خذت من خاطري يوم وسليتني
وانا من الزين ناصبلك علوم وراي
تضحك بوجهي وتحچي بالفاينات وراي
ناديت يا خلتي چيف البصر والراي
الله يجازيك سل العود سليتني








***





- Maqam Rast (00:00) and Bnayya Ya Bnayya (19:08)
- Maqam Sharqi Isfahan





مقام الرست واغنية قديمة بنية ويا بنية. تسجيل دار الاذاعة الاسرائيلية القسم العربي 1961. شعر بلبل الغرام الحاجري وهو حسام الدين عيسى بن سنجر الحاجري


مالي ارى النوم عن عيني قد نفرا * أانت علمت طرفي بعدك السهرا
يا غائبا كان جهدي لا أفارقه * فما قدرت على ان ادفع القدرا
سقيا لأيامنا ما كان أطيبها * ولت ولم اقض من لذاتها وطرا
هبوا المنام لعيني ربما غلطت * برقدة فرأت منكم خيالا كرا
أشتاقكم شوق مشتاق الى وطن * هاجت بلابله ريح الصبا سحرا


*

(بستة)


بنية ويا ينية * يا ويلي هنا

بهذاك الصوب لازرعلك عرك جوز
ومنك يا حليو الطول ما جوز
يا بابا هنا

بنية ويا ينية * يا ويلي هنا

هلي والناس كالولي ولك جوز
وانا الماجوز ماخذ غير هيه
يا بابا هنا

بنية ويا ينية * يا ويلي هنا

دخذني وطير بيه ولا تهدني
واثاري الشمات بحضنك حطني
يا بابا هنا

بنية ويا ينية * يا ويلي هنا

*
 


مقام الشرقي رست


ما چان ذنبي بنار حشاي سليتني
من عگب هجرك لهاني العگل سليتني
ما خذت من خاطري يوم وسليتني
وانا من الزين ناصبلك علوم وراي
تضحك بوجهي وتحچي بالفاينات وراي
ناديت يا خلتي چيف البصر والراي
الله يجازيك سل العود سليتني




**


- Maqam Awj (00:00) and Ana Al-Mseichin Ana (12:30)
- Maqam Bheirzawi (17:00)


The owj and birzawi performances include the Iraqi-Jewish santur player Yusuf Petaw, who was a part of the Iraqi delegation to the First International Conference of Arabic Music in Cairo, Egypt, 1932.





مقام الاوج واغنية قديمة انا المسيجين انا , من فروع مقام السيكاه ويقرأ بالشعر الفصيح بدون مرافقة الايقاع. سليم شبث مع يوسف بتو, ساسون عبدو, شوتة مير, مناشي نسيم تسجيل القسم العربي لدار الاذاعة الاسرائيلية 1961. القصيدة من شعر الشاب الظريف وهو محمد ين سليمان بن علي بن عبد الله التلمساني شمس الدين وهو من شعراء العهد العباسي الاخير


لا تخف ما صنعت بك الاشواق * واشرح هواك فكلنا عشاق
قد كان يخفي الحب لولا دمعك ال * جاري ولولا قلبك الخفاق
فعسى يعينك من شكوت له الهوى * في حمله فالعاشقون رفاق
لا تجزعن فلست أول مغرم * فتكت به الوجنات والأحداق
وأصبر على هجر الحبيب * فربما عاد الوصال وللهوى أخلاق


*

(بستة)


انا المسيجين انا
انا المظيليم انا
انا العافوني هلي
من يوم عمري سنة

لابس دميري حبي
نازع دميري حبي
عينه على غيري الاشكر زلف
والله ما جوز انا منه

انا المسيجين انا
انا المظيليم انا
انا الباعوني هلي
بنوط والوعدة سنة

لابس زبونه حبي
نازع زبونه حبي
حلوات عيونه الاشكر زلف
والله ما جوز انا منه


*


مقام بهيرزاوي
من فروع مقام البيات ويقرأ بالموال الزهيري بمرافقة ايقاع اليكرك


لي خلة حارجين حشاي في نارهم
حتى الحشا والجبد مشعول في نارهم
ناديت رب العرش ما تنطفي نارهم
كيلن يتيه العكل واصير كالمجنون
صاحوا جميع الخلك مالك صرت مجنون
وان جان جنيت ما هو فد مجنون
عفت الاهل والوطن والضيم في نارهم



Vocals: Salim Shibbeth
Santur: Yusuf Pataw
Violin: Sasson Abdu
Percussion: Shuta Meir, Menashe Nassim

**


COMMENTARY AND RECORDINGS COURTESY OF ESTHER WARKOV (2017).


Saturday, October 7, 2017

Taqsim Santur Maqam Hussein and Dasht - Sabah Hashim






الاستاذ صباح هاشم غالي قارئ المقام العراقي وعازف آلة السنطور وعضو في فرقة انغام الرافدين تقسيم من مقامي الحسيني والدشت

Saturday, September 30, 2017

The Iraqi Maqam - Hashim M. Al-Rajab

AL-MAQAM AL-IRAQI
Studies in the Classical Music of Iraq


Hashim M. Al-Rajab

Instructor
Fine Arts Institute
Baghdad



The Maqam is a form of music which is unique to Iraq. The word "MAQAM", literally means "a halting place", while in musical terminology it means "tone". Fundamentally it is the music of the city dwellers in Iraq. Explaining this kind of music and trying to give the reader a precise idea about it is very difficult, as it is not recorded in any kind of musical notations, Like any other folklore music, which what the maqam to a certain extent is, it has been handed orally from generation to generation, and to the many masters of this art, as well as, the appreciative listeners, the Maqam owes its existence today. These are some of the factors that arouses the curiosity of the lovers of strange and out-of-the-way music.


Occidentals find it hard to distinguish one middle-Eastern melody from another. The listener tends to hear a monotonous similarity in these melodies that is due to the fact that an Oriental musician differs basically from his Occidental colleague. The former is addressing the heart of the listener, while the latter appeals to the brain. In another word the oriental appeals to the sentiments in the time the Occidental uses the imagination as his field. The Maqam, in addition to being sentimental music, is descriptive and meditative.


Western music makes far greater use of strong tone production and of resonating instruments than does the Oriental. Therefore, it is clear that our task of making the Western listener to appreciate the oriental music in general and the Iraqi music in particular, is not an easy one. Time, then, is a very important factor in helping the western listener to acquire a taste to this unfamiliar music, provided that he listens with the thought to understand the open heart and desire to appreciate this form of strange yet beautiful music, the Maqam.


The Maqam is defined as a group of melodies which are individually of the same mood. The Maqam always have a prelude which is called "Tahrir", and a conclusion known as "Taslim". In between the prelude - the Tahrir - and the conclusion - the Taslim - is the Maqam proper. This part is usually composed of pieces of other Maqams, not necessarily of the same key, but always confined to the same mood of the main theme.


The Maqam is usually rendered with four instruments, used as the background. The SANTUR which is an instrument consisting of twenty three keys, each of which has four metal strings attached to it and stretched on a wooden frame. The KAMANA forms the second piece of this orchestra, and which has four strings that are vibrated by a bow. Hence the name Kaman means bow. The DUMBUG, which is a type of drum made of a piece of skin stretched on an earthen-ware pot, is used to keep time. Finally we have the DAFF which is a similar thing to world wide known Tambourine.


Basically the Maqam adopts the same musical scale adopted by the European music. But it consists of seven tones, which are the DO, RE, MI, FA, SOL, LA and the SI. The main differences between the European and the Maqam scale are two. First, the European scale consists of tones and half tones, while the Maqam consists of tone, half tones and quarter tones. The second difference be in the names given to each tone. These will be mentioned later on.


The Maqam is generally a theme which is obtained from one of the seven tones. The theme is to be limited between two tones only. For example, the Maqam known as "RAST" must lay between SOL and RE, which is higher than SOL by four and a half tones, and the singer must not go higher than that. But if the singer goes higher than that, then so far as Maqam singing goes, he is at fault.


The Maqam proper as mentioned above is called the "MIANA". This as we have stated earlier is a part of another song, but in the same mood of the introduction and conclusion. It may be compared to the CADENZA of the European music, for in it the singer can show his virtuosity.


The Maqam singers of Baghdad, which is the home of this kind of music, recognize seven principal melodies, which forms the basic themes of the Maqams of Iraq. These are:


1- The RAST
2- The BAYAT
3- The SAYGAH
4- The CHARGAH
5- The HUSSEINI
6- The HUJAZ
7- The SEBA


It is of interest to note that each Maqam is usually associated with some predominant feeling. The RAST, for instance is a slow, low-pitched music and it implies wisdom, while the BAYAT is associated with a strong, virile feeling. Other themes are intended to evoke memories of the past, sadness, merriment or such other human feelings and emotions.


Branching from the original seven themes are about ninety secondary themes. While about fifty of these second themes or melodies have achieved the status of an independent complete Maqam, the remaining forty are sung as part of the other Maqams and fitted therein.


With regard to the words sang with the Maqam music, we can divide the latter into two categories. The first category, such as Bayat, Nawa and Rast is rendered with Classical Arabic poetry. With other Maqams which form the second category, the colloquial poetry, which is the layman poetry, is used. The second category are such like Hadidi, Ibrahimi and Madmi.


Each Maqam should be sung in a special pitch. When and if it sung higher or lower then it loses the most characteristic part of it. That is, it loses the mood or feeling it was meant to express. If it is sung higher than its scale, then it would be impossible to maintain the accuracy of the melody.


The PASTA is a cheerful, lively little song, that is usually sung after the Maqam, and it is evolved from the melody of the Maqam with which it should be in keeping. It is a kind or sort of chorus. For every Maqam there are a number of these Pastas which are introduced to enable the audience to participate in the enjoyment of the singing. It also serves to give the principal singer an opportunity to take a rest.


The secondary Maqams which increased the number of the original Maqams are due to, and a product of the creative instinct of the human being, a natural instinct which rebels against a too stereotyped artistic form and out along new paths. This instinct had manifested itself, as far as the Maqam is concerned in two different ways. First in the composition of new Maqams which has come about when the musicians who have introduced the Maqam have put two or more melodies together, coming out with an entirely new Maqam, which differs from each of the composing melodies. A typical example of this, is the JAMMAL. This Maqam is composed of the SEBA and SAYGAH, but when sung it has a completely different character.


Secondly, the urge to create new forms was manifested when the original singers of the Maqam were able to produce a different Maqam by raising the pitch of the melody of a given Maqam, thus producing a different song. As an example we can cite the case were the pitch of the SAYGAH is raised, we have on our hands a new Maqam which is called AWJ.


Some people have reasons to believe that the Maqam is the legacy of the Abbasid Caliphs, whose reign flourished in this part of the world between the eighth and the thirteenth centuries AD. In fact some of the scholars think that the Maqam called IBRAHIMI was named after the famous singer Ibrahim Al Mousully, who enlivened many nights of the famous Caliph, Haroun al Rashid.


These theories, however, on the period when the Maqam type of music and singing came into existence and took its name are only surmised based on evidence, and like all other historical studies of similar nature are still controversial, and far from conclusive. Ali al Darwish, who attended the Middle Eastern music conference held in Cairo, Egypt, in 1932, stated that this art originated about 400 years ago. He cites as evidence the Tawashih of Andalusia. The famous singer Ziriab who had to leave Baghdad as a result of the treachery of his teachers, inspired by jealousy, to Moorish Spain, took with him the music of the Abbasids in Baghdad. This became the base of the various Andalousian melodies, known today as the MUWASHAHAT.


Thanks to the efforts of Al Darwish and his colleagues, which disclosed to us the fact that the basis of Al Muwashahat is the same of the Western music, i.e. the eight tine scale. While the Maqam is based on the three, four or five tone group scale. Therefore, it seems likely that the Maqam started during the period of the decline after the Ottoman occupation of Iraq. And it can be said that this kind of music took its origin from the music of the local people, as well as that of the other people passing through this country, whether soldier, merchant or tourist.


But as a conclusive fact, we can say that certainly the Maqam of today is effected by and contain many melodies of the Turkish, Persian, Indian, Caucasian and of course the Arabic music. In proof of this statement, we may cite the following: First, the names of some of the Maqams, such as "IDEEN", "URFAH", and the "TURKISH RAST", are purely Turkish, while "SAYGAH" traces back to the origin of this Maqam to Persia, and in like manner the "TAFLEES" can be traced back to its Caucasian origin, and the "INDIAN RAST" to India. The "SEBA" and "HUJAZ" as can be seen from their names are of Arab origin. Secondly, the similarity between the melodies of the Iraqi Maqam and these of Turkish, Indian or Persian songs. And thirdly, the Persian, Turkish or Indian words the Maqam singers use sometimes, when singing.


The principal factors in preserving the Maqam are many. But mainly, we can say that the reading of the KORAN and the special hymns sung during some religious ceremonies especially the "Mawlud", or the Wudhan, the prayers call of the Moslem. Then the Maqam survived is also due to those people who are interested in this kind of music and those singers who follow the masters and later imitate them. Whenever a good singer appears, many young people, or in the modern expression "fans", would be attracted to his singing and try to imitate his special style. Many singers are found among the craftsmen, such as labourors, weavers, carpenters or masons, and other individuals from the different walks of life. There also used to be special cafes where the Maqam was recited every night, and where the entrance fees were very small. For instance, the famous Iraqi singer Ahmad Zaidan used to sing half a century ago with a group of musicians in the Café of Fadhil, in the Qaisariyah Café and in the Masbagheh. This famous singer was succeeded by another famous one, namely Rashid al Qoundarchi, who used to sing at the Shahbender Café in Baghdad.


Different schools of Maqam singing have formed which were represented by groups of eminent singers who would be followed by their disciples and pupils. Needless to say, in the handing down of this traditional type of music differences arose in the mode of presentation of the Maqam, in the selection of melodies and so on.


This brings us to the question of the writing down of the Maqam. We have seen that the rules are bound, in the handing down process, to undergo constant changes, while like all artistic tradition passed on in this fashion from Master to pupil or to imitator, there is great danger of the tradition being lost.


This is more true nowadays when young people is a rapidly developing country like Iraq, don't have much time or interest to spare for this kind of music. Nothing on the form of the Maqam is in writing. For all the foregoing the Egyptian and western music, as well as modern Iraqi music have captured a place in the hearts of our young generation.


This is not a complete study of this subject, and could not even be termed as a real introduction to such a long and complicated art. But it is a birds eye view, to get people to know about this kind of music, about which nothing had been written so far. We hope that the reader will find this humble attempt as useful as it was intended to be.


- Maqams in classical Arab poetry:

Bayat, Rast, Saygah, Hujaz, Nawa, Husseini, Seba, Khanabat, Mansuri, Araibun Ajam, Qouriyat, Bayat Ajam, Banjikah, Basheeri, Awj, Taflees, Jammal, Awshar, Ajam Ushairan, Taher, Khalwati, Mathnawi, Saeedi, Nahawand, Hujaz Shaitani, Hujaz Atchugh, Huweizawi, Urfah, Dashti, Dasht, Arwah, Hamayoun, Nawrouz Ajam.


- Maqams in colloquial poetry:

Buheirzawi, Ibrahimi, Juburi, Mahmoudi, Nari, Mugabal, Maschin, Araibun Arab, Sharqi Isfahan (Sharqi Rast), Rashdi, Hakimi, Goulgouli, Mukhalaf, Madmi, Huleilawi, Bajilan, Qatar, Hujaz Kar Kurd, Sharqi Doukah, Hadidi.


- Qita' and Awsal:

Qazzaz, Nahuft, Qaryabash, Umar Gallah, Bakhtiar, Laouk, Zanbouri, Khalili, Abboush, Mukhalef Kirkuk, Udhal, Qatouli, Sayh Reng, Qadir Bayjan, Mahuri, Ali Zubar, Hujaz Madani, Shahnaz, Abuselik, Jassas, Saisani, Hujaz Ghareeb, Sufian, Ushaishi, Saygah Halab, Saygah Ajam, Saygah Balaban, Ideen.



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Al-Muthanna Library publications
Al-Ma'arif Press, Baghdad
First Edition, 1961